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MarketingTerms.com defines caching as the 'storage of Web files for later re-use at a point more quickly accessed by the end user,' the main objective of which is to make efficient use of resources and speed the delivery of content to the end user.

How does it work?

Well, Guy Provost offers a more detailed explanation of How Caching Works, but simply put, a web cache, situated between the origin Web servers and the client(s), works by saving for itself a copy of each HTML page, image and file (collectively known as objects), as they are requested, and uses this copy to fulfill subsequent requests for the same object(s), instead of asking the origin server for it again.

Advantages:

* if planned well, caches can help your Web site load faster and be more responsive by reducing latency – since responses for cached requests are available immediately, and closer to the client being served, there is less time for the client to get the object and display it, which will result in
* users visiting more often (since they appreciate a fast-loading site)
* can save load on your server – since there are fewer requests for a server to handle, it is taxed less and so reduces the cost and complexity of that datacenter (which is why web-hosting companies with large networks and multiple datacenters offer caching servers at various datacenters in their network; caching servers automatically update themselves when files are updated, which takes the load off the central server or cluster of servers)
* reduces traffic/bandwidth consumption – since each object is only gotten from the server once, there are fewer requests and responses that need to go over the network
* you don't have to pay for them

There are some concerns with its use, however:

* webmasters in particular fear losing control of their site, because a cache can 'hide' their users from them, making it difficult to see who's using the site
* could result in undercounts of page views and ad impressions (though this can be avoided by implementing various cache-busting techniques to better ensure that all performance statistics are accurately measured)
* danger of serving content that is out of date, or stale

There are two kinds:

* Browser Caches
o client applications built in to most web browsers
o let you set aside a section of your computer's hard disk to store objects that you've seen, just for you, and will check to make sure that the objects are fresh, usually once a session
o settings can be found in the preferences dialog of any modern browser (like Internet Explorer or Netscape)
o useful when a client hits the 'back' button to go to a page they've already seen & if you use the same navigation images throughout your site, they'll be served from the browser cache almost instantaneously
* Proxy Caches
o serve many users (clients) with cached objects from many servers
o good at reducing latency and traffic (because popular objects are requested only once, and served to a large number of clients)
o usually deployed by large companies or ISPs (often on their firewalls) that want to reduce the amount of Internet bandwidth that they use
o can happen at many places, including proxies (i.e. the user's ISP) and the user's local machine but often located near network gateways to reduce the bandwidth required over expensive dedicated internet connections
o many proxy caches are part of cache hierarchies, in which a cache can inquire from neighboring caches for a requested document to reduce the need to fetch the object directly
o although some proxy caches can be placed directly in front of a
particular server (to reduce the number of requests that the server
must handle), they are called differently (reverse cache, inverse
cache, or httpd accelerator) to reflect the fact that it caches
objects for many clients but from (usually) only one server.

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